Algae are sunlight-driven cell factories, and can efficiently absorb CO2 and convert light energy to chemical energy such as lipid, starch and other carbohydrates, and release O2. Algal feedstock is a promising resource for bioproduct production, given its high photosynthetic efficiency for producing biomass compared to conventional crops. Microalgae can be used for flue-gas and wastewater bioremediation. This book highlights recent breakthroughs in the multidisciplinary areas of algal biotechnology and the chapters feature recent developments from cyanobacteria to eukaryotic algae, from theoretical biology to applied biology. It also includes the latest advancements in algal-based synthetic biology, including metabolic engineering, artificial biological system construction and green chemicals production. With contributions by leading authorities in algal biotechnology research, it is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in the field, and those involved in the study of photosynthesis and green-cell factories.