Applied Animal Endocrinology Edition 3

May 2024
More details
  • Publisher
  • Published
    13th May
  • ISBN 9781800620711
  • Language English
  • Pages 376 pp.
  • Size 7" x 9"

This text explains the role of hormones in improving and monitoring the production, performance, reproduction, behavior and health of livestock animals. It covers different endocrine systems and how these can be manipulated to advantage, covering the mechanism of action and highlighting common themes to help stimulate development of new methods.

A refreshed, updated resource that highlights new areas of endocrinology with applications in commercial animals, additions to this new edition include:

  • information on G protein receptors, function of CREB, methods for identification of DNA regulatory sequences and DNA binding proteins, circadian rhythm and the biological clock;
  • expanded coverage of in vitro models to include 3D cell culture and organ-on-a-chip;
  • new knowledge on gene editing, antibody production, hormone delivery methods and DNA cloning and sequencing methods;
  • the role of the gut microbiome, as well as effects of antibiotics and antimicrobials;
  • skin as an endocrine organ and related information on wool production and endocrine defleecing;
  • updated information on protocols for assessing endocrine disruptor chemicals.
An invaluable text for students of animal science and veterinary medicine, this book also provides a useful resource for those in academia and industry interested in applications of endocrinology in animal production systems.

Preface to the 3rd Edition
Preface to the 2nd Edition
Preface to the 1st Edition
Acknowledgements for the 3rd Edition
Acknowledgements for the 2nd Edition
Acknowledgements for the 1st Edition
Acronyms and Abbreviations
1 Hormone and Receptor Structure and Function
1.1 Introduction
What is a hormone?
Why are hormones necessary?
How do hormones function?
What effects are due to hormones?
How is hormone action selective?
Types of hormones
Location of endocrine glands
1.2 Synthesis, Release and Metabolism of Hormones
Synthesis of protein hormones
Synthesis of steroid hormones
Synthesis of eicosanoids
Synthesis of thyroid hormones
Synthesis of monoamines
Hormone release
Metabolism and excretion of hormones
1.3 Receptors and Hormone Action
Extracellular receptors
G protein-coupled receptors
GPCR structure and function
GPCR signalling pathways
Adenylate cyclase–cAMP–protein kinase A pathway
Calcium-dependent phospholipase C–protein kinase C system
Interaction of cAMP and Ca2+ pathways
Catalytic receptors
Tyrosine kinase receptors
Cytokine receptors
Receptor serine/threonine kinase
MAPK system
Termination of hormone action
Intracellular receptors
Nuclear receptor superfamily classification
Structural and functional domains of nuclear receptors
N-terminal domain (NTD)
DNA-binding domain (DBD)
Hinge region
Ligand-binding domain (LBD)
Nuclear receptor–DNA interactions
Organization of nuclear chromatin
Chromatin structure
Nuclear matrix
Identification of DNA regulatory sequences and binding proteins
Integration of peptide and steroid hormone actions
1.4 Pituitary–Hypothalamic Integration of Hormone Action
Structure–function relationship of pituitary and hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary hormones
Anterior pituitary hormones
Hypothalamic releasing and release-inhibiting hormones
Control of hormone release
Summary: Multiple levels of regulation of endocrine systems
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading
2 Endocrine Methodologies
2.1 Methods for Studying Endocrine Function
Experimental model systems
Whole-animal model 
Isolated organs or tissues
In vitro models 
Cell culture systems
Use of agonists, antagonists and inhibitors
Use of antibodies
Immune response
Detection and purification of antibodies
Monoclonal and recombinant antibodies
Use of antibodies to identify the site of hormone synthesis or target tissue
2.2 Measurement of Hormones and Receptors
Assay of hormones
Types of hormone assays
Chemical assays
Liquid chromatography
Gas chromatography
Measurements of hormone–receptor binding
2.3 Methods for the Production of Hormones
Steroids and non-protein hormones
Protein and peptide hormones
Determination of amino acid sequence
Peptide and protein synthesis
Non-peptide mimics of peptides
Production of recombinant proteins
2.4 Manipulation of Endocrine Function
Hormone delivery methods
Types of sustained-release devices
Pulsatile and controlled release of hormone
Hormone residues
Immunomodulation of hormone action
Transgenic animals
Uses for transgenic animals
Production of transgenic animals
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading
3 Manipulation of Growth and Carcass Composition
3.1 Overview
Effects on growth, feed efficiency and lean yield
Muscle development
Adipose tissue development
Bone development
3.2 Anabolic Steroids and Analogues
Applications of anabolic steroids
Mechanism of action
Direct effects
Indirect effects
Delivery systems
Safety issues
3.3 Use of Intact (Uncastrated) Male Pigs for Pork Production
Advantages and problems of intact male pigs
Effects of sex steroid hormones
Description of boar taint
Measurement of boar taint
Use of tainted meat in processed products
Metabolism of androstenone and skatole
Potential methods to control boar taint
Diet and management
Genetic approaches
Immunological methods
3.4 Somatotrophin
Applications of ST
Control of ST release
Mechanism of action of ST
Direct effects
ST receptors
Metabolic effects
Indirect effects
Delivery/dose effects
Safety/quality aspects
3.5 Adipokines
Leptin receptors
Involvement in energy metabolism and reproduction
Inflammatory cytokines
3.6 Thyroid Hormones
Synthesis and metabolism
Transporters and receptors
Metabolic effects
Effects on growth and development
3.7 β-Adrenergic Agonists
Mechanism of action
β-AA structures
β-AA receptors
Physiological responses to β-AA
Safety aspects
Alternative approaches for using growth promoters
3.8 Dietary Chromium and Insulin
Potential mechanisms of action of chromium
Physiological effects
Safety issues
3.9 Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Mechanism of action
Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and γ-linolenic acid
Trans fatty acids
Conjugated linoleic acid
Metabolic effects of CLA isomers
Mechanism of action of CLA
3.10 Regulation of Food Intake
Central nervous system hormones
Orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides: NPY and AgRP
Anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides: POMC/MSH and CART
Downstream pathway: orexin and MCH
Gastrointestinal tract hormones
Ghrelin and obestatin
Proglucagon-derived peptides
Peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide
Peripheral signals of adiposity
Applications of dietary control
3.11 The Gut Microbiome and Antimicrobials
The gut microbiome
Effects on animal production and health
Bacterial metabolites act as paracrine or endocrine factors
Evaluation of the composition of the microbiome
Factors affecting the composition and function of the microbiome
Antimicrobial growth promoters
Alternative feed additives to AGPs
Practical applications
Control of methane production in ruminants
Control of post-weaning diarrhoea in pigs
Use in poultry
3.12 Effects of Stress on Meat Quality
Pale, soft, exudative (PSE) and dark, firm, dry (DFD) meat
Porcine stress syndrome
Testing for PSS
Endocrine factors that affect PSS pigs and PSE pork
Manipulations to reduce the incidence of PSE
Summary and Conclusions
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading
4 Endocrine Effects on Animal Products
4.1 Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production
Model systems for studying mammary gland function
Whole-animal studies
In vitro cell culture systems
Mammary gland development (mammogenesis)
Involution and the dry period
Hormones and mammary gland development
Hormones and initiation of lactogenesis
Maintenance of lactation (galactopoiesis)
Hormonal effects
Milk removal
Effect of bST
Mechanism of action
Safety concerns of bST use
Factors affecting milk composition
Milk protein
Milk fat
Other bioactive compounds in milk
Metabolic diseases related to lactation
Milk fever
Hormones involved
Predisposing factors
Treatment and prevention
4.2 Egg Production
Sexual development and gonadogenesis
Hormonal effects
Genetic effects
Regulation of follicular development and egg production
Manipulation of moulting
Endocrine effects
Eggshell formation
Shell matrix
Calcium metabolism
Calcium absorption in the intestine
Calcium transport in bone
Calcium transport in the shell gland
4.3 Wool Production and Endocrine Defleecing
Skin as an endocrine organ
Wool growth
Defleecing methods
Model systems used to study function of follicles
Growth factor effects on hair and wool follicles
Insulin-like growth factors
Fibroblast growth factors
Transforming growth factor-β
EGF family of growth factors
EGF receptor
Effects of EGF on follicles
Other effects of EGF
Summary of growth factors affecting fibre growth
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading
5 Endocrine Manipulation of Reproduction
5.1 Manipulation of Reproduction in Mammals
Sexual differentiation and maturation
Differentiation of the gonads and ducts
Differentiation of the brain
Sex differentiation in cattle, sheep and pigs
Sex-determining genes
Regulation of meiosis in germ cells
Regulation of steroidogenesis
Regulation of the oestrous cycle
Overview of the oestrous cycle
Follicular development
Oestrus and ovulation
Luteal phase
Manipulation of the oestrous cycle
Hormone preparations for manipulating reproduction
Use of hormone agonists to control fertility
Detection and synchronization of oestrus
Methods for detection of oestrus
Oestrous behaviour
Milk progesterone
Strategies for synchronizing oestrus
Prostaglandin F2α-based systems
GnRH and the Ovsynch® protocol
Progestin-based systems
Superovulation and embryo transfer
In vitro production of embryos
Pregnancy, parturition and the postpartum interval
Recognition and maintenance of pregnancy
Induction of abortion/parturition
Postpartum interval
Cystic ovarian disease
Effects of nutrition
Effects of stress
Puberty and seasonality
Inducing puberty
Seasonal effects on reproduction
Regulation of LH production
Advancing cyclicity in seasonal breeders
Immunological control of reproduction
5.2 Endocrine Manipulations in Aquaculture
Control of reproduction
Sex differentiation and maturation
Sex reversal
Hormonal treatments for sex reversal
Indirect methods
Induction of spawning
Endocrine control of gametogenesis
Endocrine effects on growth and nutrient utilization
Effects of stress on reproduction, growth and immunity
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading
6 Effects on Animal Behaviour, Health and Welfare
6.1 Control of Broodiness in Poultry
6.2 Applications of Pheromones
Types of pheromones
Chemistry of pheromones and their binding proteins
Pheromone production and release
Detection of pheromones
Vertebrate pheromones
Sheep and goats
Insect pheromones
Pest control
Population monitoring
Mating disruption
Mass trapping
Insect management
Reproduction control in mammals
6.3 Effects of Stress
What is stress?
Hormonal responses to stress
SAM and SN systems
HPA axis
CRH and CRH receptors
Role of various hormones in stress responses
Assessment of stress
Behavioural and physiological measures
Hormonal measures
Issues related to sampling
Effects of stress on the immune system and disease resistance
Overview of the immune system
Stress effects on the immune system
Effects of stress on reproduction
Effects of stress on growth performance
6.4 Endocrine Applications in Toxicology
Endocrine disruptors or modulators
Assessment of endocrine disruptor activity
Tier 1 screening tests for EDCs
Tier 2 multi-generational tests
Sources of endocrine disruptors
Plant-derived endocrine modulators
Xenobiotic endocrine modulators
Indirect mechanisms of action
Effects on hormone metabolism
Effects on thyroid function
Effects on adrenal function
Effects on CNS function and behaviour
Questions for Study and Discussion
Further Reading

E. James Squires

Professor E. James Squires is Chair of the Department of Animal Biosciences at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. His broad research interests are in metabolism and functional genomics to improve the health and productivity of livestock, and to develop animal models for human metabolism, health and nutrition. His work is a combination of basic and applied studies. He has published almost 150 papers in referred journals, and authored the textbook Applied Animal Endocrinology, along with several book chapters and numerous abstracts and technical publications for industry audiences.

endocrine systems; endocrine methods; animal growth and carcass composition; animal products; animal reproductionanimal behavior; animal welfare; in vitro models; gene editing; antibody production; hormone delivery methods; DNA cloning; meat quality; animal gut microbiome; milk production; milk composition; egg production; wool production; endocrine defleecing; endocrine manipulations; animal stress; animal hormonal response; endocrine function