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Understanding Nanoelectromechanical Quantum Circuits and Systems (NEMX) for the Internet of Things (IoT) Era

Hardback
February 2020
9788770221283
More details
  • Publisher
    River Publishers
  • Published
    3rd February
  • ISBN 9788770221283
  • Language English
  • Pages 200 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
$115.00
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January 2020
9788770221276
More details
  • Publisher
    River Publishers
  • Published
    30th January
  • ISBN 9788770221276
  • Language English
  • Pages 200 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
$86.25

The operational theme permeating most definitions of the IoT concept is the wireless communication of networked objects, in particular, smart sensing devices and machines, exchanging data via the Internet. In this book, a detailed look is taken at the fundamental principles of devices and techniques whose exploitation will facilitate the development of compact, power-efficient, autonomous, smart, networked sensing nodes underlying and encompassing the emerging IoT era.

The book provides an understanding of nanoelectromechanical quantum circuits and systems (NEMX), as exemplified by first the uncovering of their origins, impetus and motivation, and secondly by developing an understanding of their device physics, including the topics of actuation, mechanical vibration and sensing. Next the fundamentals of key devices, namely, MEMS/NEMS switches, varactors and resonators are covered, including a wide range of implementations. The book then looks at their energy supply via energy harvesting, as derived from wireless energy and mechanical vibrations. Finally, after an introduction to the fundamentals of IoT networks and nodes, the book concludes with an exploration of how the NEMX components are encroaching in a variety of emerging IoT applications.

Preface          

1         The Internet of Things          

            1.1       Origins  

            1.2       IoT Motivation/Impact          

            1.3       Summary    

2         Microelectromechanical and Nanoelectromechanical Systems      

            2.1       MEMS/NEMS Origins

            2.2       MEMS/NEMS Impetus/Motivation    

            2.3       Summary        

 3         Understanding MEMS/NEMS Device Physics

            3.1       Actuation        

            3.1.1   Electrostatic Actuation          

            3.1.1.1 Parallel-Plate Capacitor

            3.1.1.2 Electrostatically-Actuated Cantilever Beam

            3.1.1.3 Interdigitated (Comb-drive) Capacitor

            3.1.2 Piezoelectric Actuation

            3.1.2.1 Piezoelectric Cantilever Probe

            3.1.3 Casimir Actuation

            3.1.3.1 Casimir's Force Calculation Method

            3.1.3.2 Lifshitz’s Calculation of the Casimir Force

            3.1.3.3 Casimt Force Calculation of Brown and Maclay

            3.1.3.4 Casimir Force Calculations for Arbitrary Geometries

            3.1.3.5 Computing the Casimir Energy Based on Multipole Interactions

            3.1.3.6 Computing the Casimir Force Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Techniques

            3.1.3.7 Computing the Casimir Force Using the Framework of Macroscopic Quantum Electrodynamics

            3.1.3.8 Corrections to Ideal Casimir Force Derivation

            3.1.4 Radiation Pressure Actuation

            3.1.5 Radiation Pressure Manipulation of Particles

            3.1.6 Radiation Pressure Trapping of Particles

            3.1.7 Radiation Pressure Effect on Cantilever Beams

            3.2       Mechanical Vibration

            3.2.1 The Single-Degree-of-Freedom-System

            3.2.2 The Many-Degree-of-Freedom-System

   3.2.3 Rayleigh's Method

   3.4 Thermal Noise in MEMS/NEMS

   3.4.1 Fundamental Origin of Intrinsic Noise

   3.4.2 Amplitude of Brownian (Random) Displacement of Cantilever Beam

   3.5       Sensing          

   3.5.1   The Accelerometer

   3.5.1.1 Capacitive Accelerometer Implementation

   3.5.1.2 Quantum Mechanical Tunneling Accelerometer

   3.5.2 Vibration Sensors

   3.3       Summary        

 4         Understanding MEMS/NEMS Devices 

            4.1       Introduction  

            4.2       MEMS/NEMS Switches          

    4.2.1 Nanoelectromechanical Switches

     4.2.1.1 Downscaled MEMS/NEMS Switches

     4.2.1.2 MEMS/NEMS Switches via Novel Materials

     4.3 MEMS/NEMS Varactors

     4.3.1 Nanoelectromechanical Varactors

     4.3.1.1 Dual-Gap MEMS/NEMS Varactors

     4.3.2.2 MEMS/NEMS Varactors via New Materials

     4.4       MEMS/NEMS Resonators      

     4.1.1 Nanoelectromechanical Resonators

      4.1.1.1 Clamp-Clamp RF MEMS Resonators

      4.1.1.2 MEMS/NEMS Resonators via New Materials

      4.5       Summary        

 5         Understanding MEMS/NEMS for Energy Harvesting            

            5.1       Introduction  

            5.2       Wireless Energy Harvesting  

       5.2.1 RF-DC Conversion Circuit

       5.2.2 Resonant Amplification of Extremely Small Signals

     5.3       Mechanical Energy Harvesting         

     5.3.1 Theory of Energy Harvesting from Vibrations

       5.3.1.1 Piezoelectric Conversion

       5.3.1.2 Electrostatic Conversion

    5.4       Summary         

6         MEMS/NEMS Applications in the IoT Era      

       6.1       Introduction  

    6.1.1 Wireless Connectivity

      6.1.1.1 Communication Protocols

      6.1.1.2 Network Range       

      6.2       Origins of the Internet of Things        

   6.3       Applications of the Internet of Things 

      6.4       Potential Impact of 5G and Beyond on IoT    

           6.5       Summary

Hector J. De Los Santos

Hector J. De Los Santos is with NanoMEMS Research, LLC.

Internet, IoT, Wireless Connectivity, MEMS, NEMS, NEMX, Quantum Sensors, Smart Nodes, Energy Harvesting, 5G