Square Pegs and Round Holes

Alternative Approaches to Diverse College Student Development Theory

March 2021
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  • Publisher
    Stylus Publishing
  • Published
    1st March
  • ISBN 9781620367728
  • Language English
  • Pages 396 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
  • Images 28
March 2021
More details
  • Publisher
    Stylus Publishing
  • ISBN 9781620367711
  • Language English
  • Pages 396 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
  • Images 28
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March 2021
More details
  • Publisher
    Stylus Publishing
  • ISBN 9781620367735
  • Language English
  • Pages 396 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
  • Images 28
E-Book (ePub)
March 2021
More details
  • Publisher
    Stylus Publishing
  • ISBN 9781620367742
  • Language English
  • Pages 396 pp.
  • Size 6" x 9"
  • Images 28

Developing alternative student development frameworks and models, this groundbreaking book provides student affairs practitioners, as well as faculty, with illuminating perspectives and viable approaches for understanding the development of today’s diverse student populations, and for building the foundation for their academic success and self-authorship.

With the increasing number of adult working students, minoritized, multiracial, LGTBQ, and first-generation students, this book offers readers vital insights into – and ways to interrogate – existing practice, and develop relevant responses to the needs of these populations.

Building on and critiquing the past frameworks, and integrating the insights of contemporary scholarship on student development, the contributors collectively put forward a robust theoretical and methodological foundation for this work, using Critical Race Theory as their central frame. CRT allows chapter authors to situate race related encounters at the center of their proposed alternative framework or model, and deconstruct and challenge commonly held assumptions about diverse college student development.

In the tradition of CRT, each author offers an alternative model or framework that can be applied to the diverse population upon which the chapter is framed, prompting readers to address such questions as:

• Who are our college students?
• What set of experiences do our students bring to the higher education context?
• What role have their environments/contexts (i.e. home, p-12, community, family, peer groups, mentors) played in our student’s lives?
• What impact have intervening variables (i.e. race, oppression, power) had on their experiences?
• What strategies do they use to overcome developmental obstacles?
• How do they define success, and how they know they have achieved it ?

By laying bare the experiences of these diverse college students that inform this volume’s “alternative” frameworks this book contests that notion that they constitute square pegs that must fit into the round holes of traditional frameworks.

“In this time of racial unrest, and deliberate attempts to become more effective anti-racist practitioners, this book is a critical resource. In addition to doing the important work of centering race in this book, the authors also address the ever-expanding learning as it relates to gender and sexuality.

The final part of the book addresses the experience of non-traditional students. This offers us a look at not only the students, but the locations of these students. Again, most frameworks and models that have been a part of our cannon have been based on the experience of students at predominately and historically white institutions and students of ages 18-24. There have been very few models that address the differences in the developmental experience for students who are older than 24, or those attending community colleges, HBCUs, HSIs, or Tribal college. As a result, the faculty, staff and administrators serving those populations often have to extrapolate from work that does not take into account the unique experiences that come with a difference academic environment and age.

Each section of this book will provide you with new insights, new questions and opportunities to meet the needs of often misunderstood populations. A major take away for me is that each chapter is framed as  ‘Alternative Frameworks and Model’, This says to me that, these scholars are offering more resources and tools for the work. They are not suggesting that we throw everything that’s been done away. Nor have they suggested that previous frameworks models are not useful. They are simply stating that we need to have alternatives for a growing and changing demographic so that we are not forcing square pegs in round holes.”

Rev. Dr. Jamie Washington - President, Washington Consulting Group (WCG); President & Co-Founder, Social Justice Training Institute (SJTI); President (2019), ACPA – College Student Educators International

“Previous examinations of student development theory have prompted scholars, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to better understand the myriad ways in which students’ learn and engage. This book expands on those prior examples and creates new areas for discussion and inquiry. For example, as America continues to grapple with the many racial injustices and inequities that permeate the fabric of nearly every industry, this is the perfect time for a volume that uses critical race theory as a central frame. The selected topics stress the importance of not forcing conversations about students’ development into previous models but instead reframing the dialogues in new and more appropriate ways. Square Pegs and Round Holes definitely fills a void in literature by providing an abundance of approaches that help practitioners better understand the nuances of students’ progress. The effect should be a cadre of professionals who can make more precise adjustments to policies and procedures and thus positively impact student outcomes.

In this time of continued uncertainty regarding how the field of higher education will transform to address new demands and unanticipated challenges, professionals need an evergreen resource that focuses on students’ development. This book’s arrival could not be timelier, as the pressure on both campuses and students to succeed is arguably higher than ever. The approaches included in this volume certainly answer the call for new models and, in some ways, provide a glimpse of the kind of interactions that are possible when students are consistently placed at the center of campus strategies. This book contains a remarkable blend of historical contexts, current paradigms, and future aspirations and offers a means for connecting student populations that have traditionally received less attention in published scholarly works.

It is urgent that institutions demonstrate their capacity to deliver personalized experiences to students, particularly those who are expecting their college experience to result in greater financial stability and social mobility. As professionals respond to those expectations, the frameworks included in Square Pegs and Round Holes offer a foundation to provoke them to acknowledge, welcome, and support students whose identities need to be visible and prioritized every day. Regardless of what the future holds, those who refer to this book often will have a reliable guide to make students’ experience the most optimal possible, which is a goal that every institution should have today and beyond.”

Amelia Parnell, Vice President for Research and Policy - NASPA – Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education

“Hallowed past practices in the field of student development have often failed to engender student empowerment and success among the diverse students that universities serve.   Help has finally arrived in the form of Square Pegs and Round Holes which offers invaluable perspectives on how to reframe and enhance narrow and outmoded practices in this field.”

Ruth J. Simmons, President - Prairie View A&M University

Square Pegs Round Holes is an important asset to the field of higher education and student affairs. Uniquely centering critical race theory as the organizing frame for alternative student development models and perspectives presented, the book empowers practitioners and faculty with updated tools for understanding the intersectional, contextualized, and diverse identities of today’s college students. While this book thoughtfully critiques the shortcomings of traditional theories, it does not reject them entirely. Rather, it builds new space for emerging voices that tell a more complete story about the complexity of student experiences and identities.”

Alexa Wesley, Associate Director for Research and Policy - NASPA – Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education

Square Pegs and Round Holes does an exceptional job of honoring and acknowledging past and current theoretical perspectives. Simultaneously, the book pushes the boundaries of how we need to reconceptualize our understanding of the complex nature of identity development and the lived experiences of historically minoritized groups in higher education. Furthermore, it positions the construct of race as central to understanding marginalization across different identity groups. Finding ourselves amid a reckoning with racial injustice and other isms in the United States, this book's timeliness is appreciated and welcomed as we seek new perspectives to help us serve and understand a growing and evolving diverse segment of the college-going population.”

Salvador B. Mena, Vice Chancellor of Student Affairs - Rutgers University-New Brunswick

“I have taught Student Development Theory for the majority of my faculty career. For a long time, I had to teach using theoretical frameworks that are outdated and not representative of the diverse student populations on college campuses today. Square Pegs and Round Holes provides a much-needed expansion of theories and perspectives to understand better the lives and experiences of the multiple, intersectional, and complex populations left out of traditional student development theories. As an instructor, I no longer have to rely solely on theories void of diverse perspectives. Students entering higher education preparation programs desire to learn more about diverse populations and grapple with social justice issues. This text answers that call by bringing together seminal minds in the field who center marginalized populations' experiences and voices. As a practitioner-based field that relies on theory to guide practice, we must use theories and perspectives that are inclusive. Texts like this one challenge our thinking, research, and practice in ways that help us "know better so that we can do better!"

Joy Gaston Gayles, Ph.D. Professor, Senior Advisor for the Advancement of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, & President-Elect - Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE)

“This text privileges the experiences of those of us left out of early “mainstream” student development theories. Chapters offer critical insight regarding the many ways-of-being of post-secondary students with models and frameworks to guide and further our understanding of student development. Square Pegs and Round Holes is particularly timely given current social stresses and pandemic—the implications of which will impact our students, our institutions, and our communities for years to come.”

Stephanie J. Waterman, Associate Professor, Leadership, Higher & Adult Education; Coordinator, Student Development/Student Services Stream - Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto

Foreword—Rev. Dr. Jamie Washington
Intoduction—Fred A. Bonner II, Rosa M. Banda, Stella L. Smith, and aretha f. marbley

Part One: The Need for Alternatives In College Student Development Theory
1) Alternative College Student Development Frameworks: An Exploration Across Race, Gender, and Sexuality—Fred A. Bonner II, Rosa M. Banda, Stella L. Smith, and aretha f. marbley
2) Modeling Alternative College Student Development Frameworks: Increasing Access and Inspiring College Success—Saundra M. Tomlinson-Clarke, Petra A. Robinson, and Sattik Deb

Part Two: Alternative Frameworks and Models for African American College Student Populations
3) Finding My Way “Black”: Resilience Building Afrocentric Identity Theories—Chavez Phelps and Mary F. Howard-Hamilton
4) Finding Our Way “Black” to Student Development Theory—Richard J. Reddick, Mariama N. Nagbe, Saralynn M. McKinnon-Crowley, G. Christopher Cutkelvin, and Howard A. Thrasher

Part Three: Alternative Frameworks and Models for Asian American College Student Populations
5) A Critical Perspective of Asian American Identity—Samuel D. Museus, Hannah Hyun White, and Vanessa S. Na
6) Unboxing Asian/American Transracial Adoptee Collegian Identities—Nicholas D. Hartlep and Daniel K. Suda
7) Forced Migration and Forged Memories: Acts of Remembrance and Identity Development Among Southeast Asian American College Students—Jason Chan, Mike Hoa Nguyen, Latana Jennifer Thaviseth, and Mitchell J. Chang

Part Four: Alternative Frameworks and Models for Latinx College Student Populations
8) Finding Meaning in the Models and Frameworks for Latinx College Students: At the Intersection of Student Agency and Context—Zarrina Talan Azizova and Jesse P. Mendez
9) Latinx Student Development Through Familismo and Conocimiento—Karina Chantal Canaba
10) ¿Quién Eres?: Identity Development of Latinx Student-Athletes—Nikola Grafnetterova and Rosa M. Banda

Part Five: Alternative Frameworks and Models for LGBTQIA College Student Populations
11) Framing and Reframing the LGBTQ College Student Development Experience—Kristen A. Renn
12) Racing the Rainbow: Applying Critical Race Theory to LGB(TQ2) Ethnic Minority College Students’ Development—Terrell L. Strayhorn
13) Breaking Through Barriers: Examining the Stresses that Impact Transgender Students’ Collegiate Transitions—Christy Heaton and Alonzo M. Flowers III

Part Six: Alternative Frameworks and Models for Bi- and Multiracial and Native American College Student Populations
14) Turning Points: Imagining and Designing Place and Belonging for Native Students—Amanda R. Tachine, Taylor Notah, Brian Skeet, Sequoia Lynn Dance, and Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy
15) Reflecting on Multiracial College Student Identity Theories to Advance Future Higher Education Practice and Research—Victoria K. Malaney Brown
16) The Multidimensionality of Multiracial Identity in the Post-Civil Rights Era—Patricia E. Literte

Part Seven: Alternative Frameworks and Models for Nontraditional College Student Populations
17) Dual Anchoring: Advancing a Framework for Nontraditional Doctoral Degree Student Success—Derrick Robinson
18) The Paradox of Community Colleges: Latino Men and the Educational Industrial Complex—Pavitee Peumsang, Jorge M. Burmicky, Victor B. Sáenz, and Emmet E. Campos

Conclusion: Future Directions and Concluding Thoughts—Fred A. Bonner II, Rosa M. Banda, Stella L. Smith, and aretha f. marbley
Afterword—Amelia Parnell

Fred A. Bonner II

Fred A. Bonner II is professor and endowed chair of educational leadership and counseling in the Whitlowe R. Green College of Education at Prairie View A&M University. He also serves as the founding executive director and chief scientist of the Minority Achievement Creativity and High Ability (MACH-III) Center. His research foci illuminate the experiences of academically gifted African American males across the P–20 pipeline, diverse faculty in academe, and diverse populations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). He is coeditor of two books with Stylus Publishing, Building on Resilience: Models and Frameworks of Black Male Success Across the P–20 Pipeline (2014) and Diverse Millennials Students in College: Implications for Faculty and Student Affairs (2011). Bonner is currently developing a theoretical framework, mascusectionality, that will explore the engagements of Black men.

Rosa M. Banda

Rosa M. Banda, PhD, is assistant professor of educational leadership at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Formerly, Banda was a research associate to the Samuel DeWitt Proctor Chair in Education in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers University. Banda earned her PhD in higher education administration and human resource development from Texas A&M University-College Station. A critical social justice advocate, Banda’s primary research interests include high-achieving Latinas in engineering, gifted poor students of color, faculty diversity, and qualitative research.

Stella L. Smith

Stella L. Smith, PhD, is the associate director for the Minority Achievement, Creativity and High-Ability (MACH-III) Center and an adjunct instructor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling at Prairie View A&M University. A qualitative researcher, her scholarly interests focus on the experiences of faculty and administrators of color in higher education; African American females in leadership in higher education; access and inclusion of underserved populations in higher education; and P–20 educational pipeline alignment. For the entirety of her professional career, she has worked in areas that promote access for underrepresented populations to higher education. Smith is a strong advocate for social justice and passionate about creating asset based pathways of success for underserved students. Smith was recognized with a 2014 Dissertation Award from the American Association of Blacks in Higher Education and as part of the 2019 Class of 35 Outstanding Women Leaders in Higher Education by Diverse Issues in Higher Education. She serves as the managing editor for the Journal for Minority Achievement, Creativity and Leadership, and an associate editor of the Journal of Family Strengths. Smith earned her PhD in educational administration with a portfolio in women and gender studies from The University of Texas at Austin.

aretha f. marbley

aretha f. marbley is a professor and coordinator of clinical mental health counseling in counselor education and interim director of women and gender studies at Texas Tech University. She is an academic counselor and a critical humanist, womanist educator, storyteller, activist, servant, morally engaged researcher, and transdisciplinary scholar with a commitment to helping people and communities. Her scholarship focuses on critical global multicultural-social justice activism, organic connections, and literacy advocacy across cultures, social structures, and social identities in mental health and communities. She has received numerous awards including national human rights, social justice, anti-oppression, and multicultural research awards.

Student Development Theory; Diversity; Critical Race Theory; Student Success; Resilience; Non-Traditional College Student; African-American; Asian; Native American; LGBTQ; LatinX