Heaps, Prototypes and Ethics
Expert judgements of students' performances normally play a key role when examination grades are being awarded. Mike Cresswell discusses the processes by which these judgments are made and their nature, arguing that they give rise to examination grades which are best understood as rough sets defined by dynamic performance prototypes.
From this starting point, he considers the problem of maintaining comparable standards through a major change of examination regime. He argues that, in these circumstances, setting examination standards by judging the quality of students' examination performances is likely to lead to ethically or socially problematic consequences, and explores the implications of this argument for the meaning of standards in the new GCE, AS and A level examinations.